정읍출장샵✉예약⇪정읍중동 안마방<정읍오피걸>➴‹정읍동네 마사지›♂정읍진해 마사지↕정읍베이징 안마방◘정읍마사지 샵♨정읍안마방 에이즈↫정읍타이 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

정읍출장샵⇛출장부르는법◘정읍중동 안마방<정읍안마방 몰래>╗‹정읍성신여대 마사지›┵정읍목동역 마사지⇛정읍영대 안마방♪정읍칠곡 마사지♝정읍성신여대 마사지⇁정읍천호동 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 서산논산 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

정읍출장샵✍예약╕정읍중동 안마방<정읍배 마사지>━‹정읍안마방 무한›♂정읍길동 마사지☎정읍타이마사지 가격▲정읍수원역 마사지╓정읍서울역 안마방╍정읍양산 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

정읍출장샵✄예약⇙정읍중동 안마방<정읍영종도 마사지>✍‹정읍아침에 안마방›↠정읍강남 안마방 후기↜정읍영천 마사지☆정읍마사지 fc2⇢정읍경마 시간↘정읍을지로 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories lemondeacademy.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

정읍출장샵♀24시출장샵♩정읍중동 안마방<정읍전립선 마사지 tumblr>➴‹정읍포항 마사지 후기›⊥정읍상주 안마방☆정읍진주 가격☢정읍출장샵┞정읍강남 전립선 마사지▪정읍대산 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 김해중국 마사지 종류 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

정읍출장샵☢출장부르는법φ정읍중동 안마방<정읍마사지 19>⚘‹정읍부산 여관 가격›☛정읍태국 마사지 torrent✙정읍안마방 vs 오피◊정읍19금 마사지☊정읍안마방 첫경험✌정읍철원 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

정읍출장샵정읍강릉 모텔 가격

  • 속초대천 안마방
  • 정읍마사지 질싸
  • 정읍출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    정읍출장샵♬24시출장샵╈정읍중동 안마방<정읍광주 안마방 추천>♀‹정읍타이 아로마 마사지›¤정읍피부 마사지↠정읍안마방 똥꼬カ정읍신주쿠 마사지↸정읍공유 마사지 찌라시☞정읍아침 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 과천신주쿠 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 부산출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    포항출장안마
    대전시흥동 안마방 평택출장샵 밀양호구포 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    정읍출장샵↝24시출장샵↥정읍중동 안마방<정읍김천 마사지>┲‹정읍의정부 대딸방›✕정읍소라넷 마사지☋정읍일본 해수욕장 마사지╒정읍분당 안마방❧정읍월곶 마사지↠정읍이천 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 고성야탑 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    정읍출장샵‿출장부르는법◄정읍중동 안마방<정읍안마방 예약>╮‹정읍마사지 발기›⇁정읍오목교 안마방☆정읍타이마사지 추천☻정읍변비 마사지⇪정읍일베 모텔╛정읍경마 시간

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    시흥안마방 단속시간
    홍성안마방 찾기 카지노사이트 홍천다낭 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    정읍출장샵リ예약✿정읍중동 안마방<정읍여관 미시>┽‹정읍다이소 마사지›↹정읍수원 마사지﹃정읍보지 마사지↠정읍석계 안마방❤정읍자지 마사지⇋정읍승모근 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 목포출장안마 .

    정읍출장샵↕24시출장샵┏정읍중동 안마방<정읍독산동 마사지>╍‹정읍무릎 마사지›✄정읍나무위키 안마방┢정읍야 동 마사지➽정읍뒷목 마사지╚정읍오피 마사지☂정읍일본 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 창원청주 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    정읍출장샵✪24시출장샵✍정읍중동 안마방<정읍안마방 옵션>❁‹정읍경주 동천동 안마방›╏정읍마사지 관리사┷정읍성신여대 마사지▨정읍포이 펫 카지노 롤링╓정읍안마방 도촬♪ 정읍여자 부르는 가격

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    정읍출장샵◑예약↲정읍중동 안마방<정읍동탄 안마방>➧‹정읍코코넛오일 마사지›☄정읍홍방장 안마방┹정읍천안 마사지❈정읍크라운제이 안마방フ정읍부산 출장╯정읍장기동 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 울진부산 서면 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 포항출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 봉화전신 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 바카라사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    정읍출장샵➡예약♈정읍중동 안마방<정읍송탄 안마방>ノ‹정읍양산 마사지›♡정읍성수역 마사지☷정읍안마방 나이대↭정읍고잔동 마사지◎정읍안마방 항문↳정읍스포츠 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 원주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    정읍출장샵◣예약금없는출장샵◘정읍중동 안마방<정읍마사지 fc2>♥‹정읍춘천 태국 마사지›☷정읍여자 마사지▫정읍출장시↴정읍부산 출장안마╝정읍야동 안마방╊정읍장 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    전라북도릉콜걸샵
    군산출장안마 동두천질 마사지 광주출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    정읍출장샵↷24시출장샵┇정읍중동 안마방<정읍연산 안마방>☠‹정읍강릉 타이 마사지›↺정읍용산구 안마방↓정읍커플 마사지 방법┴정읍중앙동 안마방♀정읍김천 마사지↩정읍청주 안마방 가격

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.정읍출장샵정읍임산부 마사지♠정읍신천 마사지☎‹정읍마사지 노모›정읍마곡 마사지◐정읍엄태웅 안마방↸정읍중국마사지 후기♪정읍세부 마사지☁울산출장안마24시출장샵정읍안마방 시간제マ정읍해변 마사지◄(정읍기흥구청 마사지)정읍안마방 오피μ정읍안마방 아줌마◤정읍답십리 안마방╰정읍사상 마사지┧정읍출장샵속초안마방 체크카드정읍제주시 안마방★정읍안마방 카드§{정읍거제 옥포 안마방}정읍스즈 하라 에미리 마사지⇜정읍삼성역 안마방▶정읍민락동 마사지❤정읍까치산 안마방™정읍예약금 없는 출장↸정읍안마방 시스템★〔정읍타이마사지 추천〕정읍산본 안마방W정읍안양 안마방 후기⇤정읍안마방 오르가즘┗정읍출장업소◢정읍태국 마사지 후기➳정읍군자역 안마방↺〈정읍마산 마사지〉정읍마사지 의자◑정읍모텔 걸↪정읍남양주 마사지❤정읍출장서비스웃정읍파주 안마방»정읍충주 안마방↺《정읍양배추 안마방》정읍홍대 안마방 위치♡정읍목동 마사지↶정읍논현동 안마방♥정읍타이 마사지 가격ζ24시출장샵옥천행신 안마방예약정읍스타 안마방ρ정읍마사지 토렌트◑(정읍태국마사지 가격)정읍모텔 걸➻정읍요방형근 마사지♩정읍출장샵예약➹정읍국 노♥정읍출장샵정읍출장샵카지노사이트정읍평택 안마방정읍안마방 청룡열차정읍중국 대딸정읍동두천 마사지정읍출장샵정읍콜걸강추√정읍마닐라 마사지⇤‹정읍마사지 노출›정읍가산동 안마방┾정읍고양이 안마방┅정읍tumblr 안마방▐정읍엄지 눈 근육 마사지☃전주신림 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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