예약금없는출장샵
  • 고성이태원 안마방
  • 대전출장안마
  • 구미출장안마
  • 부여광안리 안마방
  • 고성출장안마═출장부르는법☳고성마사지 방법‹고성동암역 마사지›♀[고성체코 마사지 토렌트]⇏고성안마사╁고성오피스텔 아가씨큐고성전기 마사지↜고성연동 안마방╦고성합성동 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    수원출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    고성출장안마☂출장부르는법ケ고성마사지 방법‹고성안마방 직원›⇩[고성마닐라 마사지]☼고성태국 마사지 토렌트▥고성운서동 안마방➻고성러브젤 마사지┕고성안마방 일베◇고성정준호 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 전주석계 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    고성출장안마↶예약﹌고성마사지 방법‹고성신림 마사지›↕[고성엄태웅 안마방]✔고성구미 봉곡동 마사지◑고성용원 마사지┲고성안마방 단속시간┼고성여관 콜↘고성조건 만남 서울

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    고성출장안마⇄출장부르는법⇪고성마사지 방법‹고성장 마사지›♛[고성마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 뜻]↨고성대전복합터미널 마사지▶고성타이마사지 불법╩고성제주도 마사지☆고성응암 마사지큐고성안마방 ssul

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 구미출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    고성출장안마➻예약금없는출장샵┈고성마사지 방법‹고성안마방 ts›❤[고성안마방 휴게텔]◐고성안마방 신고▲고성안마방 초이스.mp4►고성운서역 안마방◣고성안마방 ㅇㄷ♪고성안마방 무한

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 의성신림 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    고성출장안마ヌ예약금없는출장샵☜고성마사지 방법‹고성상남동 마사지›▥[고성국산 안마방]♮고성에스코트 모델✡고성위례 마사지⊥고성인천공항 마사지➻고성안마방 커뮤니티➡고성상봉역 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – jasonboy.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    고성출장안마고성아로마마사지 팁

  • 화순당동 안마방
  • 고성얼굴 경락 마사지 방법
  • 고성출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    고성출장안마☺24시출장샵╡고성마사지 방법‹고성이태원 마사지›⊙[고성구디 안마방]┡고성안마방 아침┥고성타이마사지 추천▨고성진주 가격❦고성안마방 내부↕고성타이 마사지 단속

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 순창콜걸업소 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 서울출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    서울출장안마
    안양안마방 야간 loveganghwa.xyz 부산중국 마사지 종류
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 포항출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

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    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 대전천안 유흥 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    고성출장안마➷예약금없는출장샵♪고성마사지 방법‹고성이동국 안마방›ワ[고성화성시 안마방]ホ고성천안역 근처 모텔╞고성fc2 한국 마사지◊고성전주 터미널 모텔♪고성안마방 물다이 몰카▧고성안마방 bj

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    공주마산 안마방
    경주주안 안마방 천안출장샵 산청fc2 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    고성출장안마♂예약◙고성마사지 방법‹고성오목교 안마방›♮[고성서양 마사지 야동]♬고성마사지 동영상☺고성원주 마사지☽고성멜라니➴고성검빛 경마 검색☢고성가락동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 평택출장샵 .

    고성출장안마░출장부르는법ψ고성마사지 방법‹고성안마방 위험›║[고성다낭 붐붐 마사지]↼고성대만 안마방×고성여대생 마사지♥고성사상구 마사지✚고성서울 안마방 위치┵고성금정 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And loveyangju.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 사천안마방 안마 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    고성출장안마ェ예약금없는출장샵━고성마사지 방법‹고성섹스 마사지›⇃[고성퇴폐]❤고성브베 안마방◎고성예약금 없는 출장 샵ⓥ고성고현 안마방┰고성조건 만남☇고성안마방 카운터

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    고성출장안마♫예약┓고성마사지 방법‹고성주안 마사지›♭[고성안마방 실장]►고성마사지 트위터◎고성부산 모텔 아가씨◑고성강서구청 마사지♔고성몰카 안마방タ고성1인샵 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 수원안마방 영어 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 부산출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 강진예약 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that egw.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    고성출장안마▬예약금없는출장샵↣고성마사지 방법‹고성다리 마사지›◦[고성광주 여관]☪고성진해 마사지━고성조건♪고성남성전용마사지☁고성부산 안마방 추천⇢고성비염 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 광주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: lovedonggu.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 바카라사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    고성출장안마❦24시출장샵╎고성마사지 방법‹고성전화 tumblr›☂[고성타이 마사지 후기]➦고성콜걸만남♂고성콜걸출장마사지▥고성타이 마사지 팁◄고성베트남 안마방➶고성남성전용

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    순천일본 안마방 야동
    포항출장샵 대전구로디지털단지 안마방 천안출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

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    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.고성출장안마고성전립선 마사지 비용ω고성양평 안마방ζ[고성안마방 물다이 몰카]고성영통 안마방↯고성영천 마사지テ고성창원 출장 마사지✎고성덕계 마사지┱전주출장샵24시출장샵고성태국 마사지 서비스☋고성안마방 처음㊣[고성인덕원 안마방]고성안마방 파워배드➴고성안마방 무한↺고성평택 마사지▫고성안마방 애무╊고성출장안마의정부하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지고성오리역 안마방↧고성부산 모텔 촌ニ﹝고성송도 안마방﹞고성오피♀고성코코넛오일 마사지╈고성출장샵예약⇛고성콜걸만남ノ고성수안보 안마방⇙고성유부녀 마사지⇢{고성강남 안마방 위치}고성발리 마사지☆고성석계 안마방✯고성김해 출장 샵▐고성아중리 안마방➳고성송도 마사지イ고성sod 마사지δ〖고성구월동 안마방〗고성압구정 마사지✍고성안마방 런베스트☍고성여성 전용 아로마 마사지♧고성마사지 섹스✐고성안마방 분수╈고성안마방 코스▪‹고성현풍 마사지›고성한국야동 안마방♫고성콜걸↔고성안마방 24시간♂고성마사지 torrent♞예약금없는출장샵광주광주 안마방 후기예약고성마사지 침대→고성마사지 중독◇〔고성괌 마사지 팔러〕고성호치민 리버티 마사지↶고성종로 마사지◑고성모텔 보도⇔고성천안 마사지♨고성출장안마고성출장안마jtvx.xyz고성마사지 gif고성폼롤러 마사지고성오피스텔 아가씨고성트레이너 마사지고성출장안마고성치앙마이 마사지✿고성해운대 안마방▣《고성안마방 얼마냐》고성서해부 마사지↟고성출장만남╒고성안마방 카드결제☢고성일본 마사지¤광명몰카 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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